In counselling and psychotherapy, there are many methods and approaches. The predominant approaches are Psychoanalytical, Behavioural, Cognitive, and Humanistic.
Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT)
CBT combines cognitive and behavioural techniques. It focuses on current problems, rather than past issues, and aims to change the way clients think and behave to help them deal with their problems in a more positive way.
Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy (REBT)
REBT is a form of cognitive & behaviour therapy based on the theory that emotional and behavioural problems are the result of our irrational thoughts and beliefs. Therapists take an active role in helping clients to identify these thoughts and replace them with more rational and realistic assumptions and ideas.
It is based on the view that everyone has the capacity and desire for personal growth and change, given the right conditions. Rather than being seen as the expert and directing the therapy, the counsellor offers unconditional positive regard, empathy and congruence to help the client develop and grow in their own way.
Solution-Focused Brief Therapy
This therapy promotes positive change rather than dwelling on past problems. Clients are encouraged to focus positively on what they do well, set goals and work out how to achieve them. As few as three or four sessions may be beneficial.
This approach stresses the importance of the unconscious and past experience in shaping current behaviour. The therapist aims to build an accepting and trusting relationship with the client, encouraging them to talk about childhood relationships with parents and other significant people. It uses similar techniques to psychotherapy, including free association, interpretation and especially transference, where the client projects feelings experienced in previous significant relationships onto the therapist.